Tag Archives: republic

Amphora Dressel 1

Inventory number: PC11-2019-2
Name of the object: amphora
Material: ceramic
Production: indeterminate
Type: amphora
Shape: Dressel 1
Dimensions (cm/kg): height: 103; maximum diameter: 30.56; maximum edge diameter: 15.2; tare weight: 18.7
Chronology: mid 2nd C. BC – end 1st C. BC
Survey: July 2011
Provenance: sector 10
Description: Amphoras are ceramic containers used in ancient times to transport and store food. The Dressel 1 shape was the most widely used by the important wine trade market that developed during the late Roman Republic period. This type of amphora was mainly used to transport wine from the grape-growing areas of Tyrrhenian Campania and to the south of Lazio (southwestern Italian Peninsula) to the edges of the Mediterranean. As these containers were important for the quality of the wine, imitations were quickly reproduced in the wine-receiving locations, probably with the aim of confusing the buyers and selling lower quality wines. Often, the copies are so well made that it is difficult to differentiate them from the originals.

Building 3

The geophysical survey carried out in the field to the west of the site revealed a building that clearly differed from its surroundings; this was identified as “Building 3”.

In 2017, it was decided to excavate in this location with the aim of characterising this construction with regard to both its structure and function. In addition, this excavation enabled us to document more of the settlement’s urban structure.

Since that first campaign, every summer this building has been the site of a dig that is used as part of the theoretical-practical course organised for students at Edinburgh University.

The excavation has, so far, led to the discovery of an almost rectangular building, measuring 8m x 11.5m. It has two rooms in the north and a large area on the southern side, which is still being excavated.

A great deal of material has been found in this building. It tells us about both the life of its inhabitants (pottery ware for drinking and eating, game pieces, coins, etc.), and about its end, as several charcoal deposits show that it caught fire. Among the rubble of the largest room, the first anatomically connected human remains from the settlement have been found.

Building 4: area 4

The geophysical survey carried out at the beginning of the project revealed, among other elements, part of the urban structure of the site. Building 4 was detected in the centre of the field. It is a large building (about 450m2), with a prominent “C” shaped room (area 4), which had apparently been burned.

The 2011 to 2013 campaigns focused on this area and demonstrated that it is a closed space, even though the east wall, which is narrower, deeper, and built with smaller stones, was not detected by the geophysical techniques. The only access to the area is on the south side.

The traces of fire were also corroborated during the excavations, as several burned beams were found, probably from an attic, which had fallen on several pottery pieces. One of the pottery pieces is a black-glazed krater from present-day Sicily, which was used to mix wine and water. The resulting liquid would have been consumed using cups, also ceramic, in this case imported from the Italian peninsula.

The presence of these elements denotes a certain level of luxury. This makes us suspect that the building could have played an important role in the settlement, although future work is needed to confirm this.

Fish hook

Inventory number: PC10-2010-70
Name of the object: fish hook
Material: bronze
Type: of Gracia
Dimensions: 2,5 x 3 cm and diametre: 1,5-1,7mm
Chronology: Roman Late Republic
Survey: July 2010
Provenance: sector 2
Description: The two hooks recovered have a flat, rectangular head produced by hammering the top of the shank after casting. The head is perforated for attaching the fishing line

Sling projectile

Inventory number: PC10-2005-539
Name of the object: Sling projectile
Material: metal, lead.
Type: weaponry
Shape: bi-conical Type 2b of Völling (1990)
Dimensions: length: 4,1 cm, width: 1,6 cm, weight: 45 gr
Chronology: s. I BC.
Survey: july 2010
Provenance: sector 2.
Description: Lead sling projectile made in a two-part mould. One end is crushed and it has an incision on one side. This damage could be the result of impacting against a hard surface. Lead sling projectiles originated in the Greek world, where they are documented for the first time at the end of the 5th century BC. It seems that they started to spread following Roman expansion and, during the Roman Republican and Imperial Periods, they are documented throughout the Mediterranean

Sharpening stone or coticule

Inventory number: PC10-101-190
Name of the object: Sharpening stone or coticule
Material: lithic, basalt.
Type: daily use object
Shape: rectangular
Dimensions: 6 x 4 cm. Thickness: 1 cm.
Chronology: Roman Late Republic
Survey: july 2010
Provenance: SUPI 4.
Description: Rectangular sharpening stone, touchstone or coticule of basaltic tuff with bevelled edges

Door key

Inventory number: PC10-2005-516
Name of the object: door key
Material: metal, iron
Type: daily use object
Dimensions: length (from the spikes to the outer part of the handle): 5 cm. length (from the spikes to the inner part of the handle): 4,7 cm. Irregular thickness (of the spikes): de 0,4 a 0,6 cm. Thickness (of the square handle): 0,7 x 1,2 cm. diametre of the ring: outer: 2,4 cm; inner: 1,5 cm.
Chronology: Roman Late Republic
Survey: july 2010
Provenance: sector 2
Description: Door key with four teeth, a short handle and a bow. Some of the teeth are slightly at an angle, which could have been caused in ancient times or due to the weight of the earth. The bow is large enough to carry it on one finger.

Head of catapult bolt

Inventory number: PC10-2005-508
Name of the object: head of a pilum catapultarium
Material: metal, iron
Type: weaponry
Dimensions: total length: 10,3cm; length of the body:7,1cm; length of the head: 3,2 cm. irregular diametre of the body: from 1,8 cm at the openeing, to 1,1 cm where the head starts. Maximum width at the base of the head: 1,6 cm. Weight: 60gr.
Chronology: Roman Late Republic
Survey: july 2010
Provenance: sector 2
Description: Square-sectioned compact, solid pilum catapultarium bolt with socket attachment to the shaft. Catapult bolts could be a very effective weapon for eliminating the defenders of a wall in a hypothetical siege.

Hilt of a bidiscoidal dagger

Inventory number: PC10-101-191
Name of the object: hilt of a bidiscoidal dagger
Material: metal, iron
Type: weaponry
Shape: bidiscoidal
Dimensions: length: 12cm maximum diametre: 6cm
Chronology: Roman Late Republic
Survey: july 2010
Provenance: SUPI 4
Description: Hilt of a bidiscoidal dagger still with the rivets that joined the two parts together. The blade has been lost. Using X-rays, it has been possible to see that the dagger had bronze decorations in the areas close to the rivets on the discs.

Black burnished ceramic plate from Cales repaired with staples

Inventory number: PC12-2084-120
Name of the object: plate reparaired with lead staples
Material: ceramic
Production: black burnish from Cales.
Type: ware
Shape: Lamb. 5/7.
Dimensions: diametre of 33cm
Chronology: 125-25 BC
Survey: julyl 2012
Provenance: sector 7
Description: Large black glazed plate or dish from Cales. This is an important item of tableware and is of some value. They are considered luxury products imitating the gold, silver or bronze tableware that not everyone could afford.